Global estimates on the number of people blind or visually impaired by Uncorrected Refractive Error: a meta-analysis from 2000 to 2020 (2024)

Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are not openly available due to reasons of sensitivity and are available from the coordinator of the Vision Loss Expert Group (Professor Rupert Bourne; rb@rupertbourne.co.uk) upon reasonable request. Data are located in controlled access data storage at Anglia Ruskin University.

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Funding

This study was funded by Brien Holden Vision Institute, Foundation Thea, Fred Hollows Foundation, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Lions Clubs International Foundation (LCIF), Sightsavers International, and University of Heidelberg.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

  1. Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Ulster University, Coleraine, BT52 1SA, UK

    Julie-Anne Little

  2. Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK

    Nathan G. Congdon

  3. Orbis International, New York, USA

    Nathan G. Congdon

  4. Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

    Nathan G. Congdon&Serge Resnikoff

  5. Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Serge Resnikoff

  6. School of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Serge Resnikoff

  7. School of Life Course and Population Sciences, King’s College London, London, UK

    Tasanee Braithwaite

  8. The Medical Eye Unit, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

    Tasanee Braithwaite

  9. Nova Southeastern University College for Optometry, Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA

    Janet Leasher

  10. African Vision Research Institute, University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa

    Kovin Naidoo

  11. School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

    Kovin Naidoo&Rohit C. Khanna

  12. Australian College of Optometry, Vic, Australia

    Tim Fricke

  13. University of Melbourne, Vic, Australia

    Tim Fricke

  14. UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Tim Fricke

  15. Department of Ophthalmology, Cambridge University Hospitals, Cambridge, UK

    Ian Tapply

  16. Federal University of Sao Paolo, Sao Paolo/SP, Brazil

    Arthur G. Fernandes

  17. University of Calgary, Calgary/AB, Canada

    Arthur G. Fernandes

  18. School of Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy

    Maria Vittoria Cicinelli

  19. Department of Ophthalmology, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy

    Maria Vittoria Cicinelli

  20. Scientific Institute San Raffaele Hospital, Vita-Salute University, Milan, Italy

    Alessandro Arrigo

  21. University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France

    Nicolas Leveziel

  22. CHU de Poitiers, Poitiers, France

    Nicolas Leveziel

  23. School of Population and Global Health, University of Melbourne, Carlton, VIC, Australia

    Hugh R. Taylor,Shahina Pardhan&Rupert Bourne

  24. Vision and Eye Research Institute, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, UK

    Tabassom Sedighi,Rupert R. A. Bourne&Seth Flaxman

  25. Department of Computer Science, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    Seth Flaxman

  26. Department of Ophthalmology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milano, Italy

    Maurizio Battaglia Parodi

  27. Ufa Eye Research Institute, Ufa, Russia

    Mukkharram M. Bikbov

  28. University Hospital, Dijon, France

    Alain Bron

  29. National University of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore

    Ching-Yu Cheng

  30. Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore, Singapore

    Ching-Yu Cheng

  31. University of Michigan, Singapore, Singapore

    Monte A. Del Monte

  32. Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA

    Monte A. Del Monte

  33. Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan, Michigan, USA

    Joshua R. Ehrlich

  34. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Michigan, USA

    Joshua R. Ehrlich

  35. National Eye Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Leon B. Ellwein

  36. Mass Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA

    David Friedman

  37. Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

    João M. Furtado

  38. Institute of Ophthalmology UCL & NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Bethesda, MD, USA

    Gus Gazzard

  39. Sankara Nethralaya, Medical Research Foundation, Chennai, 600006, India

    Ronnie George

  40. Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

    M. Elizabeth Hartnett

  41. Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany

    Jost B. Jonas

  42. Associated Ophthalmologists of Monastir, Monastir, Tunisia

    Rim Kahloun&John H. Kempen

  43. Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

    John H. Kempen&John H. Kempen

  44. Eye Unit, MyungSung Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    John H. Kempen

  45. Department of Ophthalmology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    John H. Kempen

  46. Sight for Souls, Bellevue, WA, USA

    John H. Kempen

  47. Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital, University of Monastir, Monastir, 5000, Tunisia

    Moncef Khairallah

  48. Allen Foster Community Eye Health Research Centre, Gullapalli Pratibha Rao International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye care, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India

    Rohit C. Khanna

  49. Brien Holden Eye Research Centre, L.V. Prasad Eye Institute, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, India

    Rohit C. Khanna

  50. University of Rochester, School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA

    Rohit C. Khanna

  51. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 75390, USA

    Judy E. Kim

  52. HelpMeSee, Instituto Mexicano de Oftalmologia, New York, NY, 10018-8005, USA

    Van Charles Lansingh

  53. University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, 33146, USA

    Van Charles Lansingh

  54. University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA

    Van Charles Lansingh

  55. Suraj Eye Instate, 559, New colony, Nagpur, India

    Vinay Nangia

  56. Institute of Optics and Optometry, University of Social Science, 121 Gdanska str., Lodz, 90-519, Poland

    Michal Nowak

  57. Medicine & Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Konrad Pesudovs

  58. Centre for Public Health, Queens University Belfast, Northern Ireland, Belfast, BT15 1ED, UK

    Tunde Peto

  59. John Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute, Baltimore, USA

    Pradeep Ramulu

  60. 1st Department of Ophthamology, Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Ahepa Hospital, Thessaloniki, 546 36, Greece

    Fotis Topouzis

  61. University of Crete Medical School, Giofirakia, 715 00, Greece

    Mitiadis Tsilimbaris

  62. Beijing Institute of Ophthamology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthamology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing, China

    Ya Xing Wang

  63. Beijing Institute of Ophthamology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

    Ningli Wang

  64. School of Biomedical Sciences, Ulster University, Coleraine, UK

    Julie-Anne Little

  65. Centre for Public Health, Queen’s University, Belfast, UK

    Nathan G. Congdon

  66. ORBIS International, New York, NY, USA

    Nathan G. Congdon

  67. School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Serge Resnikoff,Kovin S. Naidoo,Nina Tahhan,Timothy Fricke&Konrad Pesudovs

  68. Ophthalmology Department, Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK

    Tasanee Braithwaite

  69. International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK

    Tasanee Braithwaite

  70. College of Optometry, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA

    Janet L. Leasher

  71. Discipline of Optometry, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

    Kovin S. Naidoo

  72. Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

    Timothy Fricke

  73. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Federal University of São Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Arthur G. Fernandes

  74. Department of Ophthalmology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano, Italy

    Maria Vittoria Cicinelli

  75. Scientific Institute San Raffaele Hospital, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy

    Alessandro Arrigo

  76. Ophthalmology Department, CHU de Poitiers (Poitiers University Hospital), Poitiers, France

    Nicolas Leveziel

  77. Unité 1084, National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Poitiers, France

    Nicolas Leveziel

  78. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    Paul Svitil Briant,Theo Vos,Aleksandr Y. Aravkin,Kaleb Coberly,Xiaochen Dai,Lalit Dandona,Rakhi Dandona,Stephen S. Lim,Tomislav Mestrovic,Ali H. Mokdad,Christopher J. L. Murray&Jaimie D. Steinmetz

  79. Department of Health Metrics Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    Theo Vos,Aleksandr Y. Aravkin,Xiaochen Dai,Rakhi Dandona,Stephen S. Lim,Awoke Misganaw,Ali H. Mokdad&Christopher J. L. Murray

  80. Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, UK

    Seth Flaxman

  81. Department of Clinical Governance and Quality Improvement, Aleta Wondo Hospital, Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia

    Yohannes Habtegiorgis Abate

  82. Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Zahra Abbasi Dolatabadi

  83. Department of Surgery, Marshall University, Huntington, WV, USA

    Michael Abdelmasseh

  84. The Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences (TIPS), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Mohammad Abdollahi

  85. School of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Mohammad Abdollahi

  86. Pediatrics Nursing Department, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia

    Ayele Mamo Abebe

  87. Department of Community Medicine, Babco*ck University, Ilishan-Remo, Nigeria

    Olumide Abiodun

  88. Department of Family and Community Health, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana

    Richard Gyan Aboagye

  89. Department of Adult Health Nursing, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia

    Woldu Aberhe Abrha

  90. Department of Banking and Finance, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

    Hiwa Abubaker Ali

  91. Clinical Sciences Department, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Eman Abu-Gharbieh

  92. Department of Therapeutics, United Arab Emirates University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates

    Salahdein Aburuz

  93. College of Pharmacy, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

    Salahdein Aburuz

  94. Department of Public Health, Wolkite University, Wolkite, Ethiopia

    Tadele Girum Girum Adal

  95. Department of Human Anatomy, Federal University Dutse, Dutse, Nigeria

    Lawan Hassan Adamu

  96. Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

    Nicola J. Adderley

  97. Centre for Social Research in Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Isaac Yeboah Addo

  98. Quality and Systems Performance Unit, Cancer Institute NSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Isaac Yeboah Addo

  99. Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Howard University, Washington, DC, USA

    Tayo Alex Adekiya

  100. School of Public Health, Chitwan Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal

    Kishor Adhikari

  101. Public Health Section, Himalayan Environment and Public Health Network (HEPHN), Chitwan, Nepal

    Kishor Adhikari

  102. Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University, Bandung, Indonesia

    Qorinah Estiningtyas Sakilah Adnani

  103. Department of Community Medicine, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan

    Saira Afzal

  104. Department of Public Health, Public Health Institute, Lahore, Pakistan

    Saira Afzal

  105. Department of Biotechnology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Shahin Aghamiri

  106. Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “G.F. Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

    Antonella Agodi

  107. Department of Geography and Planning, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada

    Williams Agyemang-Duah

  108. School of Public Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Bright Opoku Ahinkorah

  109. Department of Medical Biochemistry, Shaqra University, Shaqra, Saudi Arabia

    Aqeel Ahmad

  110. Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA

    Hooman Ahmadzadeh

  111. Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

    Ayman Ahmed

  112. Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland

    Ayman Ahmed

  113. Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

    Haroon Ahmed

  114. Evidence-Based Practice Center, Mayo Clinic Foundation for Medical Education and Research, Rochester, MN, USA

    Fares Alahdab

  115. Community and Mental Health Department, Al al-Bayt University, Mafraq, Jordan

    Mohammed Albashtawy

  116. Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Khalifa University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Mohammad T. AlBataineh

  117. Department of Public Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia

    Tsegaye Alemu

  118. Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health (MOH), Hawassa, Ethiopia

    Tsegaye Alemu

  119. Department of Ophthalmology, University of Leipzig Medical Center, Leipzig, Germany

    Ahmad Samir Alfaar

  120. Department of Ophthalmology, Charité Medical University Berlin, Berlin, Germany

    Ahmad Samir Alfaar

  121. College of Nursing, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

    Fadwa Alhalaiqa Naji Alhalaiqa

  122. Psychological Sciences Association, Amman, Jordan

    Fadwa Alhalaiqa Naji Alhalaiqa

  123. Institute of Health Research, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana

    Robert Kaba Alhassan&Mustapha Immurana

  124. Department of Zoology, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, Mardan, Pakistan

    Abid Ali

  125. Center for Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of SWAT, Swat, Pakistan

    Syed Shujait Shujait Ali

  126. Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA

    Louay Almidani

  127. Doheny Image Reading and Research Lab (DIRRL), University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

    Louay Almidani

  128. Department of Pharmacy Practice and Pharmacotherapeutics, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Karem H. Alzoubi

  129. Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

    Karem H. Alzoubi

  130. Department of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece

    Sofia Androudi

  131. Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland

    Rodrigo Anguita

  132. Department of Vitreoretinal, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, UK

    Rodrigo Anguita

  133. Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India

    Abhishek Anil&Muhammad Aaqib Shamim

  134. All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhubaneswar, India

    Abhishek Anil

  135. School of Dentistry and Medical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Orange, NSW, Australia

    Anayochukwu Edward Anyasodor

  136. Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Jalal Arabloo&Haleh Ayatollahi

  137. Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

    Aleksandr Y. Aravkin

  138. College of Art and Science, Ottawa University, Surprise, AZ, USA

    Damelash Areda

  139. School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA

    Damelash Areda

  140. Department of Environmental Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

    Akeza Awealom Asgedom

  141. Department of Public Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

    Mubarek Yesse Ashemo

  142. Department of Public Health, Wachemo University, Hossana, Ethiopia

    Mubarek Yesse Ashemo

  143. University Institute of Radiological Sciences and Medical Imaging Technology, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan

    Tahira Ashraf

  144. Department of Immunology, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran

    Seyyed Shamsadin Athari

  145. School of Nursing and Midwifery, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia

    Bantalem Tilaye Tilaye Atinafu&Birhan Tsegaw Taye

  146. Faculty of Nursing, Philadelphia University, Amman, Jordan

    Maha Moh’d Wahbi Atout

  147. Department of Forensic Medicine, Lumbini Medical College, Palpa, Nepal

    Alok Atreya

  148. Department of Health Information Management, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Haleh Ayatollahi

  149. Department of Neurovascular Research, Nested Knowledge, Inc., Saint Paul, MN, USA

    Ahmed Y. Azzam

  150. Faculty of Medicine, October 6 University, 6th of October City, Giza Governorate, Egypt

    Ahmed Y. Azzam

  151. School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

    Sara Bagherieh

  152. School of Public Affairs, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China

    Ruhai Bai

  153. University Institute of Public Health, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan

    Atif Amin Baig&Ahmad Azam Malik

  154. Big Data Institute - GRAM Project, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    Freddie Bailey

  155. Center of Innovation, Technology and Education (CITE), Anhembi Morumbi University, Sao Jose dos Campos, Brazil

    Ovidiu Constantin Baltatu

  156. Department of Anatomy, Saveh University of Medical Sciences, Saveh, Iran

    Shirin Barati

  157. Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences and Advanced Technologies “GF Ingrassia”, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

    Martina Barchitta&Andrea Maugeri

  158. Miami Cancer Institute, Baptist Health South Florida, Miami, FL, USA

    Mainak Bardhan

  159. Heidelberg Institute of Global Health (HIGH), Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany

    Till Winfried Bärnighausen

  160. T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

    Till Winfried Bärnighausen

  161. Department of Epidemiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA

    Amadou Barrow

  162. Department of Public & Environmental Health, University of The Gambia, Brikama, The Gambia

    Amadou Barrow

  163. Department of Ophthalmology, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy

    Maurizio Battaglia Parodi

  164. Department of Surgery, Jimma University, jimma, Ethiopia

    Nebiyou Simegnew Bayileyegn

  165. School of Health Science, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Alemshet Yirga Berhie

  166. Department of Pharmacology, Popular Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Abhishek Bhadra

  167. Department of Public Health, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA

    Akshaya Srikanth Srikanth Bhagavathula

  168. Department of Community Medicine and Family Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India

    Pankaj Bhardwaj&Pankaja Raghav Raghav

  169. School of Public Health, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India

    Pankaj Bhardwaj

  170. Global Health Neurology Lab, NSW Brain Clot Bank, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Sonu Bhaskar

  171. Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, South West Sydney Local Heath District and Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Sonu Bhaskar

  172. Department of General Medicine, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India

    Ajay Nagesh Bhat

  173. Medical Lab Technology, Chandigarh University, Mohali, India

    Gurjit Kaur Bhatti

  174. Epidemiology Department, Ufa Eye Research Institute, Ufa, Russia

    Mukharram Bikbov

  175. Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

    Marina G. Birck

  176. Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada

    Marina G. Birck

  177. Department of Biopharmaceutics and Clinical Pharmacy, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan

    Yasser Bustanji

  178. Department of Basic Biomedical Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Yasser Bustanji

  179. School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada

    Zahid A. Butt

  180. Al Shifa School of Public Health, Al Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

    Zahid A. Butt

  181. Harvard Business School, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

    Florentino Luciano Caetano dos Santos

  182. School of Sciences, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal

    Vera L. A. Carneiro

  183. Association of Licensed Optometry Professionals, Linda-a-Velha, Portugal

    Vera L. A. Carneiro

  184. College of Public Health, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia

    Muthia Cenderadewi

  185. Department of Public Health, University of Mataram, Mataram, Indonesia

    Muthia Cenderadewi

  186. Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

    Gashaw Sisay Chanie

  187. Research School of Population Health, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia

    Nicolas Cherbuin

  188. Center for Biomedicine and Community Health, VNU-International School, Hanoi, Vietnam

    Dinh-Toi Chu

  189. Therapeutic and Diagnostic Technologies, Cooperativa de Ensino Superior Politécnico e Universitário (Polytechnic and University Higher Education Cooperative), Gandra, Portugal

    Natália Cruz-Martins

  190. Institute for Research and Innovation in Health, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

    Natália Cruz-Martins

  191. Department of Addiction Medicine, Haukland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway

    Omid Dadras

  192. Department of Global Public Health and Primary Care, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

    Omid Dadras

  193. Public Health Foundation of India, Gurugram, India

    Lalit Dandona,Rakhi Dandona,Dharmesh Kumar Lal&Anamika Pandey

  194. Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India

    Lalit Dandona

  195. Ophthalmology Department, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania

    Ana Maria Dascalu

  196. Ophthalmology Department, Emergency University Hospital Bucharest, Bucuresti, Romania

    Ana Maria Dascalu

  197. dummy2nd University Ophthalmology Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

    Anna Dastiridou

  198. Ophthalmology Department, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece

    Anna Dastiridou

  199. Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

    Tadesse Asmamaw Dejenie

  200. Department of Physiology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Dessalegn Demeke

  201. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia

    Diriba Dereje

  202. St Paul’s Eye Unit, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, UK

    Nikolaos Dervenis

  203. Department of Ophthalmology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece

    Nikolaos Dervenis

  204. Department of Community Medicine, Chettinad Hospital and Research Institute, Chettinad Academy of Research and Education, Chennai, India

    Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan Devanbu

  205. Center of Complexity Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico

    Daniel Diaz

  206. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnics, Autonomous University of Sinaloa, Culiacán Rosales, Mexico

    Daniel Diaz

  207. Department of Human Physiology, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

    Mengistie Diress&Yibeltal Yismaw Gela

  208. Department of Medicine, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Thanh Chi Do

  209. Department of Medicine, Can Tho University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Can Tho, Vietnam

    Thao Huynh Phuong Do

  210. Department of Conservative Dentistry with Endodontics, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland

    Arkadiusz Marian Dziedzic

  211. School of Health Sciences, University of Science Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia

    Hisham Atan Edinur

  212. Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

    Joshua R. Ehrlich

  213. Institute for Health Care Policy and Innovation, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA

    Joshua R. Ehrlich

  214. Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Michael Ekholuenetale&Adeniyi Francis fa*gbamigbe

  215. Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Michael Ekholuenetale&Isaac Iyinoluwa Olufadewa

  216. Neurophysiology Department, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

    Hala Rashad Elhabashy

  217. Faculty of Medicine, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya

    Muhammed Elhadi

  218. Ophthalmic Epidemiology Research Center, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran

    Mohammad Hassan Emamian

  219. Department of Ophthalmology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA

    Mehdi Emamverdi

  220. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

    Azin Etemadimanesh

  221. Research Centre for Healthcare and Community, Coventry University, Coventry, UK

    Adeniyi Francis fa*gbamigbe

  222. School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Hossein Farrokhpour&Soheil Mohammadi

  223. Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Institute, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Tehran, Iran

    Hossein Farrokhpour

  224. Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

    Ali Fatehizadeh

  225. Department of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran

    Alireza Feizkhah

  226. University Eye Clinic, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy

    Lorenzo Ferro Desideri

  227. Department of Nursing, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia

    Getahun Fetensa

  228. Institute of Public Health, Charité Medical University Berlin, Berlin, Germany

    Florian Fischer

  229. Department of Ophthalmology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

    Ali Forouhari&Mohsen Pourazizi

  230. Emergency Department, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

    Ali Forouhari

  231. Division of Ophthalmology, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil

    João M. Furtado

  232. Community Medicine Department, Bayero University, Kano, Kano, Nigeria

    Muktar A. Gadanya

  233. Department of Community Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria

    Muktar A. Gadanya

  234. Department of Community Medicine, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, India

    Abhay Motiramji Gaidhane

  235. Department of Community Medicine, ESIC Medical College & Hospital, Hyderabad, India

    Aravind P. Gandhi

  236. Health Sciences Department of Oncology Nursing, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia

    Tilaye Gebru Gebi

  237. Department of Environmental Health, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia

    Mesfin Gebrehiwot

  238. Department of Nursing, Aksum University, Aksum, Ethiopia

    Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel,Teklehaimanot Gereziher Haile&Guesh Mebrahtom Tsegay

  239. Department of Nursing, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

    Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel

  240. Department of Neurology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Bardiya Ghaderi Yazdi

  241. Eye Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani&Hengameh Kasraei

  242. Ophthalmology Department, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Fariba Ghassemi

  243. Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA

    Sherief Ghozy

  244. Department of Applied Cell Sciences, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

    Ali Golchin

  245. Cellular and Molecular Medicine Institute, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

    Ali Golchin

  246. Health Systems and Policy Research Department, Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar, India

    Mahaveer Golechha

  247. Department of Genetics, Sana Institute of Higher Education, Sari, Iran

    Pouya Goleij

  248. Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

    Pouya Goleij

  249. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Anhui Medicla University, Hefei, China

    Shi-Yang Guan

  250. Toxicology Department, Shriram Institute for Industrial Research, Delhi, India

    Sapna Gupta

  251. Faculty of Medicine Health and Human Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Vivek Kumar Gupta

  252. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran

    Rasool Haddadi

  253. Brain and Behavioral Sciences Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA

    Billy Randall Hammond

  254. Department of Nursing, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran

    Mehdi Harorani

  255. Department of Zoology and Entomology, Al Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt

    Ahmed I. Hasaballah

  256. Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Ikramul Hasan

  257. Department of Ophthalmology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran

    Hamidreza Hasani

  258. Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam&Mohammad-Mahdi Rashidi

  259. Chapter of Addiction Medicine, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

  260. Independent Consultant, Santa Clara, CA, USA

    Golnaz Heidari

  261. Department of Public Health, Madda Walabu University, Robe, Ethiopia

    Demisu Zenbaba Heyi

  262. Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

    Ramesh Holla

  263. Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang, Vietnam

    Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

  264. Department of Computer Science, University of Human Development, Sulaymaniyah, Iraq

    Mehdi Hosseinzadeh

  265. Department of Psychology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

    Chengxi Hu

  266. School of Biotechnology, Tan Tao University, Long An, Vietnam

    Hong-Han Huynh

  267. Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

    Bing-Fang Hwang

  268. Department of Occupational Therapy, Asia University, Taiwan, Taichung, Taiwan

    Bing-Fang Hwang

  269. Department of Public Health, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy

    Ivo Iavicoli

  270. Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia

    Irena M. Ilic

  271. Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Burwood, VIC, Australia

    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

  272. Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam

  273. Research and Development Unit, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CiberSAM), Sant Boi de Llobregat, Spain

    Louis Jacob

  274. Faculty of Medicine, University of Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-le-Bretonneux, France

    Louis Jacob

  275. Department of Immunology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

  276. Department of Immunology, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran

    Abdollah Jafarzadeh

  277. Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, St, Petersburg, Russia

    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

  278. Institute of Comparative Economic Studies, Hosei University, Tokyo, Japan

    Mihajlo Jakovljevic

  279. Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

    Manthan Dilipkumar Janodia

  280. Centre of Studies and Research, Ministry of Health, Muscat, Oman

    Sathish Kumar Jayapal

  281. Department of Biochemistry, Government Medical College, Mysuru, India

    Shubha Jayaram

  282. Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel, Basel, Switzerland

    Jost B. Jonas

  283. Department of Ophthalmology, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

    Jost B. Jonas

  284. Department of Community Medicine, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Mangalore, India

    Nitin Joseph,Nithin Kumar&Prasanna Mithra

  285. Department of Economics, National Open University, Benin City, Nigeria

    Charity Ehimwenma Joshua

  286. Manipal Institute of Management, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

    Sagarika Kamath

  287. Save Sight Institute, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Himal Kandel&Yuyi You

  288. Sydney Eye Hospital, South Eastern Sydney Local Health District, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Himal Kandel

  289. School of Health Professions and Human Services, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, USA

    Ibraheem M. Karaye

  290. Department of Anesthesiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA

    Ibraheem M. Karaye

  291. Health Policy Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

    Hengameh Kasraei

  292. Department of Ophthalmology, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore, India

    Soujanya Kaup

  293. Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi, India

    Harkiran Kaur

  294. Department of ENT, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar State Institute of Medical Sciences (AIMS), Mohali, India

    Navjot Kaur

  295. International Research Center of Excellence, Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria

    Gbenga A. Kayode

  296. Julius Centre for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands

    Gbenga A. Kayode

  297. Department of Public Health, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan

    Yousef Saleh Khader

  298. Amity Institute of Forensic Sciences, Amity University, Noida, India

    Himanshu Khajuria&Biswa Prakash Nayak

  299. Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Baku State University, Baku, Azerbaijan

    Rovshan Khalilov

  300. Azerbaijan State University of Economics (UNEC), Baku, Azerbaijan

    Rovshan Khalilov

  301. Natural and Medical Sciences Research Center, University of Nizwa, Oman, Nizwa, Oman

    Ajmal Khan

  302. Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

    Moawiah Mohammad Khatatbeh

  303. Global Consortium for Public Health Research, Datta Meghe Institute of Higher Education and Research, Wardha, India

    Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib

  304. Department of Medical Physiology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Biruk Getahun Kibret

  305. School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Malaysia

    Yun Jin Kim

  306. School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway

    Adnan Kisa

  307. Department of International Health and Sustainable Development, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA

    Adnan Kisa

  308. Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway

    Sezer Kisa

  309. Independent Consultant, Jakarta, Indonesia

    Soewarta Kosen

  310. San Juan de Dios Sanitary Park, Barcelona, Spain

    Ai Koyanagi

  311. Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

    Kewal Krishan

  312. Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Türkiye

    Burcu Kucuk Bicer

  313. Department of General Surgery, Dr NTR University of Health Sciences, Vijayawada, India

    L. V. Simhachalam Kutikuppala

  314. Department of Health Policy and Strategy, Foundation for People-centric Health Systems, New Delhi, India

    Chandrakant Lahariya

  315. SD Gupta School of Public Health, Indian Institute of Health Management Research University, Jaipur, India

    Chandrakant Lahariya

  316. Department of Physiotherapy, Universitas Aisyiyah Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Tri Laksono

  317. Institute of Allied Health Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

    Tri Laksono

  318. Chief Medical Office, HelpMeSee, New York, NY, USA

    Van Charles Lansingh

  319. Mexican Institute of Ophthalmology, Queretaro, Mexico

    Van Charles Lansingh

  320. Department of Medical Science, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon, South Korea

    Munjae Lee

  321. Department of Precision Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, South Korea

    Seung Won Lee

  322. Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas, Galveston, TX, USA

    Wei-Chen Lee

  323. Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA

    Xuefeng Liu

  324. Department of Quantitative Health Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

    Xuefeng Liu

  325. School of Pharmacy, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago

    Sandeep B. Maharaj

  326. Fellow, Planetary Health Alliance, Boston, MA, USA

    Sandeep B. Maharaj

  327. Department of Ophthalmology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Alireza Mahmoudi

  328. Department of Internal Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, India

    Kashish Malhotra

  329. Rabigh Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Ahmad Azam Malik

  330. Electrical Engineering Department, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al Kharj, Saudi Arabia

    Iram Malik

  331. Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Jouf University, Sakaka, Saudi Arabia

    Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi

  332. Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Vahid Mansouri

  333. Department of Public Health, Management and Science University, Shah Alam, Malaysia

    Roy Rillera Marzo

  334. Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University, Subang Jaya, Malaysia

    Roy Rillera Marzo

  335. School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia

    Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles

  336. Department of Nursing, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia

    Abera M. Mersha&Bereket Beyene Shashamo

  337. University Centre Varazdin, University North, Varazdin, Croatia

    Tomislav Mestrovic

  338. Pacific Institute for Research & Evaluation, Calverton, MD, USA

    Ted R. Miller

  339. School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia

    Ted R. Miller

  340. Macquarie Medical School, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Mehdi Mirzaei&Yuyi You

  341. National Data Management Center for Health, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Awoke Misganaw

  342. Department of Surgical Oncology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Jodhpur, India

    Sanjeev Misra

  343. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran

    Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani

  344. Translational Ophthalmology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Maryam Mohammadzadeh

  345. Department of Pharmacology, Abadan School of Medical Sciences, Abadan, Iran

    Hoda Mojiri-forushani

  346. Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran

    Hamed Momeni-Moghaddam

  347. Eye Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

    Hamed Momeni-Moghaddam

  348. Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Fateme Montazeri,Parsa Mousavi,Amirhossein Parsaei,Mohammad-Mahdi Rashidi&Nazila Rezaei

  349. School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Fateme Montazeri&Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi

  350. Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Maryam Moradi

  351. College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia

    Ganesh R. Naik

  352. Department of Engineering, Western Sydney University, Sydney, NSW, Australia

    Ganesh R. Naik

  353. Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

    Gurudatta Naik

  354. Department of Dental Public Health, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Zuhair S. Natto

  355. Department of Health Policy and Oral Epidemiology, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA

    Zuhair S. Natto

  356. Department of Biotechnology, University of Central Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

    Muhammad Naveed

  357. Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Adigrat University, Adigrat, Ethiopia

    Hadush Negash

  358. Department of Epidemiology, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Tehran, Iran

    Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi

  359. Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

    Dang H. Nguyen

  360. Department of Medical Engineering, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA

    Dang H. Nguyen

  361. Cardiovascular Laboratory, Methodist Hospital, Merrillville, Merrillville, IN, USA

    Duc Hoang Nguyen

  362. Department of Allergy, Immunology and Dermatology, Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam

    Duc Hoang Nguyen

  363. Cardiovascular Research Department, Methodist Hospital, Merrillville, IL, USA

    Hien Quang Nguyen

  364. Department of Surgery, Danang Family Hospital, Danang, Vietnam

    Phat Tuan Nguyen

  365. Department of General Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Van Thanh Nguyen

  366. International Islamic University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan

    Robina Khan Niazi

  367. Department of Applied Microbiology, Oslo University Hospital, Taiz, Yemen

    Efaq Ali Noman

  368. Faculty of Applied Sciences and Technology, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia

    Efaq Ali Noman

  369. Department of Applied Economics and Quantitative Analysis, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania

    Bogdan Oancea

  370. School of Pharmacy, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa

    Osaretin Christabel Okonji

  371. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada

    Andrew T. Olagunju

  372. Department of Psychiatry, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria

    Andrew T. Olagunju

  373. Slum and Rural Health Initiative Research Academy, Slum and Rural Health Initiative, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Isaac Iyinoluwa Olufadewa

  374. Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Enugu, Nigeria

    Obinna E. Onwujekwe

  375. Geography Department, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

    Abdulahi Opejin Opejin

  376. Department of Pharmacotherapy and Pharmaceutical Care, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

    Michal Ordak

  377. School of Medicine, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, NSW, Australia

    Uchechukwu Levi Osuagwu

  378. Department of Optometry and Vision Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Uchechukwu Levi Osuagwu

  379. Laboratory of Public Health Indicators Analysis and Health Digitalization, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Russia

    Nikita Otstavnov

  380. Department of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Mayowa O. Owolabi

  381. Department of Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

    Mayowa O. Owolabi

  382. Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Mangalore, India

    Jagadish Rao Padubidri

  383. Privatpraxis, Heidelberg, Germany

    Songhomitra Panda-Jonas

  384. Global Health Governance Programme, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK

    Jay Patel

  385. School of Dentistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

    Jay Patel

  386. Department of Genetics, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA

    Shrikant Pawar

  387. Department of Development Studies, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India

    Arokiasamy Perianayagam

  388. Department of Zoology, Yadava College, Madurai, India

    Navaraj Perumalsamy

  389. Department of Zoology, Annai Fathima College, Madurai, India

    Navaraj Perumalsamy

  390. Department of Statistics and Econometrics, Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania

    Ionela-Roxana Petcu

  391. Medical School, Pham Ngoc Thach University of Medicine, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

    Hoang Tran Pham

  392. Department of Maternal and Child Nursing and Public Health, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Elton Junio Sady Prates

  393. Department of Neonatology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA

    Ibrahim Qattea

  394. Manipal TATA Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India

    Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman

  395. Department of Population Science and Human Resource Development, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    Mosiur Rahman

  396. Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA

    Shakthi Kumaran Ramasamy

  397. Department of Community Medicine, Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puduch*erry, India

    Premkumar Ramasubramani

  398. Department Biological Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Egypt

    Elrashdy Moustafa Mohamed Redwan

  399. Department of Protein Research, Research and Academic Institution, Alexandria, Egypt

    Elrashdy Moustafa Mohamed Redwan

  400. Health Economics Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    Jefferson Antonio Buendia Rodriguez

  401. Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia

    Jefferson Antonio Buendia Rodriguez

  402. Faculty of Medicine, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran

    Zahra Saadatian

  403. Infectious Diseases Research Center, Gonabad University of Medical Sciences, Gonabad, Iran

    Zahra Saadatian

  404. Department of Epidemiology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Siamak Sabour

  405. Sharjah Institute for Medical Research, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Basema Saddik

  406. Multidisciplinary Laboratory Foundation University School of Health Sciences (FUSH), Foundation University, Islamabad, Pakistan

    Umar Saeed

  407. International Center of Medical Sciences Research (ICMSR), Islamabad, Pakistan

    Umar Saeed

  408. Ophthalmic Epidemiology Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Sare Safi

  409. Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Sare Safi

  410. Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Amene Saghazadeh

  411. Sharjah Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Fatemeh Saheb Sharif-Askari

  412. Clinical Sciences Department, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Narjes Saheb Sharif-Askari

  413. Applied Biomedical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

    Amirhossein Sahebkar

  414. Biotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

    Amirhossein Sahebkar

  415. Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Mohammad Ali Sahraian

  416. Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Munich, Germany

    Joseph W. Sakshaug

  417. Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany

    Joseph W. Sakshaug

  418. College of Medicine, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates

    Mohamed A. Saleh

  419. Faculty of Pharmacy, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

    Mohamed A. Saleh

  420. Department of Neurology, Charité University Medical Center Berlin, Berlin, Germany

    Sara Samadzadeh

  421. Department of Neurology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark

    Sara Samadzadeh

  422. School of Public Health, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

    Yoseph Leonardo Samodra&Yoseph Leonardo Samodra

  423. Department of Entomology, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

    Abdallah M. Samy

  424. Medical Ain Shams Research Institute (MASRI), Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

    Abdallah M. Samy

  425. Market Access, Bayer, Istanbul, Türkiye

    Mete Saylan

  426. Faculty of Dentistry, AIMST University, Bedong, Malaysia

    Siddharthan Selvaraj

  427. Department of Medicine and Surgery, Government Doon Medical College, Dehradun, India

    Yashendra Sethi

  428. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute of Health, Rockville, MD, USA

    Allen Seylani

  429. Department of Clinical Sciences, Al-Quds University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates

    Moyad Jamal Shahwan

  430. Independent Consultant, Karachi, Pakistan

    Masood Ali Shaikh

  431. Department of Nursing, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia

    Wondimeneh Shibabaw Shiferaw

  432. National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan

    Mika Shigematsu

  433. Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Sokoto, Nigeria

    Aminu sh*ttu

  434. Department of International Studies, Non-Communicable Diseases Research Center, Tehran, Iran

    Parnian Shobeiri

  435. Faculty of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Parnian Shobeiri

  436. Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

    Seyed Afshin Shorofi

  437. Department of Nursing and Health Sciences, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia

    Seyed Afshin Shorofi

  438. Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia

    Migbar Mekonnen Sibhat

  439. Unit of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan

    Emmanuel Edwar Siddig

  440. Department of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands

    Emmanuel Edwar Siddig

  441. Family, Health Promotion, and Life Course Department, Pan American Health Organization, Bogota, Colombia

    Juan Carlos Silva

  442. School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

    Jasvinder A. Singh

  443. Department of Medicine Service, US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Birmingham, AL, USA

    Jasvinder A. Singh

  444. Department of Radiodiagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bathinda, India

    Paramdeep Singh

  445. Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA

    Houman Sotoudeh

  446. Directive Board, Association of Licensed Optometry Professionals, Linda-a-Velha, Portugal

    Raúl A. R. C. Sousa

  447. Division of Community Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy

  448. Department of Pharmacology, Shaqra University, Shaqra, Saudi Arabia

    Mohammad Tabish

  449. Trauma and Injury Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Majid Taheri

  450. Medical Ethics and Law Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

    Majid Taheri

  451. Aier Eye Hospital, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China

    Yao Tan

  452. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Mohamad-Hani Temsah

  453. Faculty of Public Health, Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Manado, Indonesia

    Jansje Henny Vera Ticoalu

  454. Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK

    Tala Tillawi

  455. Department of Public Health, Woldia University, Woldia, Ethiopia

    Misganaw Guadie Tiruneh

  456. Department of Medicine, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece

    Aristidis Tsatsakis

  457. Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece

    Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris

  458. Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Deoghar, India

    Sree Sudha Ty

  459. Department of Public Health, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA

    Chukwudi S. Ubah

  460. College of Public Health, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA

    Chukwudi S. Ubah

  461. Medical Genomics Research Department, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Muhammad Umair

  462. Department of Life Sciences, University of Management and Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

    Muhammad Umair

  463. Clinical Cancer Research Center, Milad General Hospital, Tehran, Iran

    Sahel Valadan Tahbaz

  464. Department of Microbiology, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

    Sahel Valadan Tahbaz

  465. Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran

    Rohollah Valizadeh

  466. Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA

    Maria Viskadourou

  467. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Gizachew Tadesse Wassie

  468. Department of Community Medicine, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka

    Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe

  469. Department of Ophthalmology Research, Queen Mamohato Memorial Hospital, Maseru, Lesotho

    Guadie Sharew Wondimagegn

  470. Ophthalmology Unit, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Guadie Sharew Wondimagegn

  471. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt

    Galal Yahya

  472. Department of Cells and Tissues, Molecular Biology Institute of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain

    Galal Yahya

  473. Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB, Canada

    Lin Yang

  474. Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

    Lin Yang

  475. China Center for Health Development Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China

    Yao Yao

  476. Center for the Study of Aging and Human Development, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA

    Yao Yao

  477. Department of Health Management, Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi (Süleyman Demirel University), Isparta, Türkiye

    Arzu Yiğit

  478. Department of Pharmacology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Yazachew Yismaw

  479. Pharmacy Department, Alkan Health Science Business and Technology College, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

    Yazachew Yismaw

  480. Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Japan

    Naohiro Yonemoto

  481. Department of Public Health, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan

    Naohiro Yonemoto

  482. Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA

    Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin

  483. Addictology Department, Russian Medical Academy of Continuous Professional Education, Moscow, Russia

    Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin

  484. Department of Public Health, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia

    Getachew Assefa Zenebe

  485. School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

    Zhi-Jiang Zhang

  486. College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Hebei University, Baoding, China

    Hanqing Zhao

  487. Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacogenomics, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

    Magdalena Zielińska

  488. Department of Nursing, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran

    Mohammad Zoladl

Consortia

Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study

  • Julie-Anne Little
  • ,Nathan G. Congdon
  • ,Serge Resnikoff
  • ,Tasanee Braithwaite
  • ,Janet Leasher
  • ,Kovin Naidoo
  • ,Tim Fricke
  • ,Ian Tapply
  • ,Arthur G. Fernandes
  • ,Maria Vittoria Cicinelli
  • ,Alessandro Arrigo
  • ,Nicolas Leveziel
  • ,Hugh R. Taylor
  • ,Tabassom Sedighi
  • ,Seth Flaxman
  • ,Maurizio Battaglia Parodi
  • ,Mukkharram M. Bikbov
  • ,Alain Bron
  • ,Ching-Yu Cheng
  • ,Monte A. Del Monte
  • ,Joshua R. Ehrlich
  • ,Leon B. Ellwein
  • ,David Friedman
  • ,João M. Furtado
  • ,Gus Gazzard
  • ,Ronnie George
  • ,M. Elizabeth Hartnett
  • ,Jost B. Jonas
  • ,Rim Kahloun
  • ,John H. Kempen
  • ,Moncef Khairallah
  • ,Rohit C. Khanna
  • ,Judy E. Kim
  • ,Van Charles Lansingh
  • ,Vinay Nangia
  • ,Michal Nowak
  • ,Konrad Pesudovs
  • ,Tunde Peto
  • ,Pradeep Ramulu
  • ,Fotis Topouzis
  • ,Mitiadis Tsilimbaris
  • ,Ya Xing Wang
  • ,Ningli Wang
  • &Rupert R. A. Bourne

the GBD 2019 Blindness and Vision Impairment Collaborators

  • Julie-Anne Little
  • ,Nathan G. Congdon
  • ,Serge Resnikoff
  • ,Tasanee Braithwaite
  • ,Janet L. Leasher
  • ,Kovin S. Naidoo
  • ,Nina Tahhan
  • ,Timothy Fricke
  • ,Ian Tapply
  • ,Arthur G. Fernandes
  • ,Maria Vittoria Cicinelli
  • ,Alessandro Arrigo
  • ,Nicolas Leveziel
  • ,Paul Svitil Briant
  • ,Theo Vos
  • ,Hugh R. Taylor
  • ,Tabassom Sedighi
  • ,Seth Flaxman
  • ,Yohannes Habtegiorgis Abate
  • ,Zahra Abbasi Dolatabadi
  • ,Michael Abdelmasseh
  • ,Mohammad Abdollahi
  • ,Ayele Mamo Abebe
  • ,Olumide Abiodun
  • ,Richard Gyan Aboagye
  • ,Woldu Aberhe Abrha
  • ,Hiwa Abubaker Ali
  • ,Eman Abu-Gharbieh
  • ,Salahdein Aburuz
  • ,Tadele Girum Girum Adal
  • ,Lawan Hassan Adamu
  • ,Nicola J. Adderley
  • ,Isaac Yeboah Addo
  • ,Tayo Alex Adekiya
  • ,Kishor Adhikari
  • ,Qorinah Estiningtyas Sakilah Adnani
  • ,Saira Afzal
  • ,Shahin Aghamiri
  • ,Antonella Agodi
  • ,Williams Agyemang-Duah
  • ,Bright Opoku Ahinkorah
  • ,Aqeel Ahmad
  • ,Hooman Ahmadzadeh
  • ,Ayman Ahmed
  • ,Haroon Ahmed
  • ,Fares Alahdab
  • ,Mohammed Albashtawy
  • ,Mohammad T. AlBataineh
  • ,Tsegaye Alemu
  • ,Ahmad Samir Alfaar
  • ,Fadwa Alhalaiqa Naji Alhalaiqa
  • ,Robert Kaba Alhassan
  • ,Abid Ali
  • ,Syed Shujait Shujait Ali
  • ,Louay Almidani
  • ,Karem H. Alzoubi
  • ,Sofia Androudi
  • ,Rodrigo Anguita
  • ,Abhishek Anil
  • ,Anayochukwu Edward Anyasodor
  • ,Jalal Arabloo
  • ,Aleksandr Y. Aravkin
  • ,Damelash Areda
  • ,Akeza Awealom Asgedom
  • ,Mubarek Yesse Ashemo
  • ,Tahira Ashraf
  • ,Seyyed Shamsadin Athari
  • ,Bantalem Tilaye Tilaye Atinafu
  • ,Maha Moh’d Wahbi Atout
  • ,Alok Atreya
  • ,Haleh Ayatollahi
  • ,Ahmed Y. Azzam
  • ,Sara Bagherieh
  • ,Ruhai Bai
  • ,Atif Amin Baig
  • ,Freddie Bailey
  • ,Ovidiu Constantin Baltatu
  • ,Shirin Barati
  • ,Martina Barchitta
  • ,Mainak Bardhan
  • ,Till Winfried Bärnighausen
  • ,Amadou Barrow
  • ,Maurizio Battaglia Parodi
  • ,Nebiyou Simegnew Bayileyegn
  • ,Alemshet Yirga Berhie
  • ,Abhishek Bhadra
  • ,Akshaya Srikanth Srikanth Bhagavathula
  • ,Pankaj Bhardwaj
  • ,Sonu Bhaskar
  • ,Ajay Nagesh Bhat
  • ,Gurjit Kaur Bhatti
  • ,Mukharram Bikbov
  • ,Marina G. Birck
  • ,Yasser Bustanji
  • ,Zahid A. Butt
  • ,Florentino Luciano Caetano dos Santos
  • ,Vera L. A. Carneiro
  • ,Muthia Cenderadewi
  • ,Gashaw Sisay Chanie
  • ,Nicolas Cherbuin
  • ,Dinh-Toi Chu
  • ,Kaleb Coberly
  • ,Natália Cruz-Martins
  • ,Omid Dadras
  • ,Xiaochen Dai
  • ,Lalit Dandona
  • ,Rakhi Dandona
  • ,Ana Maria Dascalu
  • ,Anna Dastiridou
  • ,Tadesse Asmamaw Dejenie
  • ,Dessalegn Demeke
  • ,Diriba Dereje
  • ,Nikolaos Dervenis
  • ,Vinoth Gnana Chellaiyan Devanbu
  • ,Daniel Diaz
  • ,Mengistie Diress
  • ,Thanh Chi Do
  • ,Thao Huynh Phuong Do
  • ,Arkadiusz Marian Dziedzic
  • ,Hisham Atan Edinur
  • ,Joshua R. Ehrlich
  • ,Michael Ekholuenetale
  • ,Hala Rashad Elhabashy
  • ,Muhammed Elhadi
  • ,Mohammad Hassan Emamian
  • ,Mehdi Emamverdi
  • ,Azin Etemadimanesh
  • ,Adeniyi Francis fa*gbamigbe
  • ,Hossein Farrokhpour
  • ,Ali Fatehizadeh
  • ,Alireza Feizkhah
  • ,Lorenzo Ferro Desideri
  • ,Getahun Fetensa
  • ,Florian Fischer
  • ,Ali Forouhari
  • ,João M. Furtado
  • ,Muktar A. Gadanya
  • ,Abhay Motiramji Gaidhane
  • ,Aravind P. Gandhi
  • ,Tilaye Gebru Gebi
  • ,Mesfin Gebrehiwot
  • ,Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel
  • ,Yibeltal Yismaw Gela
  • ,Bardiya Ghaderi Yazdi
  • ,Khalil Ghasemi Falavarjani
  • ,Fariba Ghassemi
  • ,Sherief Ghozy
  • ,Ali Golchin
  • ,Mahaveer Golechha
  • ,Pouya Goleij
  • ,Shi-Yang Guan
  • ,Sapna Gupta
  • ,Vivek Kumar Gupta
  • ,Rasool Haddadi
  • ,Teklehaimanot Gereziher Haile
  • ,Billy Randall Hammond
  • ,Mehdi Harorani
  • ,Ahmed I. Hasaballah
  • ,Ikramul Hasan
  • ,Hamidreza Hasani
  • ,Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam
  • ,Golnaz Heidari
  • ,Demisu Zenbaba Heyi
  • ,Ramesh Holla
  • ,Mehdi Hosseinzadeh
  • ,Chengxi Hu
  • ,Hong-Han Huynh
  • ,Bing-Fang Hwang
  • ,Ivo Iavicoli
  • ,Irena M. Ilic
  • ,Mustapha Immurana
  • ,Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam
  • ,Louis Jacob
  • ,Abdollah Jafarzadeh
  • ,Mihajlo Jakovljevic
  • ,Manthan Dilipkumar Janodia
  • ,Sathish Kumar Jayapal
  • ,Shubha Jayaram
  • ,Jost B. Jonas
  • ,Nitin Joseph
  • ,Charity Ehimwenma Joshua
  • ,Sagarika Kamath
  • ,Himal Kandel
  • ,Ibraheem M. Karaye
  • ,Hengameh Kasraei
  • ,Soujanya Kaup
  • ,Harkiran Kaur
  • ,Navjot Kaur
  • ,Gbenga A. Kayode
  • ,John H. Kempen
  • ,Yousef Saleh Khader
  • ,Himanshu Khajuria
  • ,Rovshan Khalilov
  • ,Ajmal Khan
  • ,Moawiah Mohammad Khatatbeh
  • ,Mahalaqua Nazli Khatib
  • ,Biruk Getahun Kibret
  • ,Yun Jin Kim
  • ,Adnan Kisa
  • ,Sezer Kisa
  • ,Soewarta Kosen
  • ,Ai Koyanagi
  • ,Kewal Krishan
  • ,Burcu Kucuk Bicer
  • ,Nithin Kumar
  • ,L. V. Simhachalam Kutikuppala
  • ,Chandrakant Lahariya
  • ,Tri Laksono
  • ,Dharmesh Kumar Lal
  • ,Van Charles Lansingh
  • ,Munjae Lee
  • ,Seung Won Lee
  • ,Wei-Chen Lee
  • ,Stephen S. Lim
  • ,Xuefeng Liu
  • ,Sandeep B. Maharaj
  • ,Alireza Mahmoudi
  • ,Kashish Malhotra
  • ,Ahmad Azam Malik
  • ,Iram Malik
  • ,Tauqeer Hussain Mallhi
  • ,Vahid Mansouri
  • ,Roy Rillera Marzo
  • ,Andrea Maugeri
  • ,Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles
  • ,Abera M. Mersha
  • ,Tomislav Mestrovic
  • ,Ted R. Miller
  • ,Mehdi Mirzaei
  • ,Awoke Misganaw
  • ,Sanjeev Misra
  • ,Prasanna Mithra
  • ,Soheil Mohammadi
  • ,Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani
  • ,Maryam Mohammadzadeh
  • ,Hoda Mojiri-forushani
  • ,Ali H. Mokdad
  • ,Hamed Momeni-Moghaddam
  • ,Fateme Montazeri
  • ,Maryam Moradi
  • ,Parsa Mousavi
  • ,Christopher J. L. Murray
  • ,Ganesh R. Naik
  • ,Gurudatta Naik
  • ,Zuhair S. Natto
  • ,Muhammad Naveed
  • ,Biswa Prakash Nayak
  • ,Hadush Negash
  • ,Seyed Aria Nejadghaderi
  • ,Dang H. Nguyen
  • ,Duc Hoang Nguyen
  • ,Hien Quang Nguyen
  • ,Phat Tuan Nguyen
  • ,Van Thanh Nguyen
  • ,Robina Khan Niazi
  • ,Efaq Ali Noman
  • ,Bogdan Oancea
  • ,Osaretin Christabel Okonji
  • ,Andrew T. Olagunju
  • ,Isaac Iyinoluwa Olufadewa
  • ,Obinna E. Onwujekwe
  • ,Abdulahi Opejin Opejin
  • ,Michal Ordak
  • ,Uchechukwu Levi Osuagwu
  • ,Nikita Otstavnov
  • ,Mayowa O. Owolabi
  • ,Jagadish Rao Padubidri
  • ,Songhomitra Panda-Jonas
  • ,Anamika Pandey
  • ,Shahina Pardhan
  • ,Amirhossein Parsaei
  • ,Jay Patel
  • ,Shrikant Pawar
  • ,Arokiasamy Perianayagam
  • ,Navaraj Perumalsamy
  • ,Konrad Pesudovs
  • ,Ionela-Roxana Petcu
  • ,Hoang Tran Pham
  • ,Mohsen Pourazizi
  • ,Elton Junio Sady Prates
  • ,Ibrahim Qattea
  • ,Pankaja Raghav Raghav
  • ,Mohammad Hifz Ur Rahman
  • ,Mosiur Rahman
  • ,Shakthi Kumaran Ramasamy
  • ,Premkumar Ramasubramani
  • ,Mohammad-Mahdi Rashidi
  • ,Elrashdy Moustafa Mohamed Redwan
  • ,Nazila Rezaei
  • ,Jefferson Antonio Buendia Rodriguez
  • ,Zahra Saadatian
  • ,Siamak Sabour
  • ,Basema Saddik
  • ,Umar Saeed
  • ,Sare Safi
  • ,Amene Saghazadeh
  • ,Fatemeh Saheb Sharif-Askari
  • ,Narjes Saheb Sharif-Askari
  • ,Amirhossein Sahebkar
  • ,Mohammad Ali Sahraian
  • ,Joseph W. Sakshaug
  • ,Mohamed A. Saleh
  • ,Sara Samadzadeh
  • ,Yoseph Leonardo Samodra
  • ,Abdallah M. Samy
  • ,Mete Saylan
  • ,Siddharthan Selvaraj
  • ,Yashendra Sethi
  • ,Allen Seylani
  • ,Moyad Jamal Shahwan
  • ,Masood Ali Shaikh
  • ,Muhammad Aaqib Shamim
  • ,Bereket Beyene Shashamo
  • ,Wondimeneh Shibabaw Shiferaw
  • ,Mika Shigematsu
  • ,Aminu sh*ttu
  • ,Parnian Shobeiri
  • ,Seyed Afshin Shorofi
  • ,Migbar Mekonnen Sibhat
  • ,Emmanuel Edwar Siddig
  • ,Juan Carlos Silva
  • ,Jasvinder A. Singh
  • ,Paramdeep Singh
  • ,Houman Sotoudeh
  • ,Raúl A. R. C. Sousa
  • ,Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy
  • ,Mohammad Tabish
  • ,Majid Taheri
  • ,Yao Tan
  • ,Birhan Tsegaw Taye
  • ,Mohamad-Hani Temsah
  • ,Jansje Henny Vera Ticoalu
  • ,Tala Tillawi
  • ,Misganaw Guadie Tiruneh
  • ,Aristidis Tsatsakis
  • ,Guesh Mebrahtom Tsegay
  • ,Miltiadis K. Tsilimbaris
  • ,Sree Sudha Ty
  • ,Chukwudi S. Ubah
  • ,Muhammad Umair
  • ,Sahel Valadan Tahbaz
  • ,Rohollah Valizadeh
  • ,Maria Viskadourou
  • ,Gizachew Tadesse Wassie
  • ,Nuwan Darshana Wickramasinghe
  • ,Guadie Sharew Wondimagegn
  • ,Galal Yahya
  • ,Lin Yang
  • ,Yao Yao
  • ,Arzu Yiğit
  • ,Yazachew Yismaw
  • ,Naohiro Yonemoto
  • ,Yuyi You
  • ,Mikhail Sergeevich Zastrozhin
  • ,Getachew Assefa Zenebe
  • ,Zhi-Jiang Zhang
  • ,Hanqing Zhao
  • ,Magdalena Zielińska
  • ,Mohammad Zoladl
  • ,Jaimie D. Steinmetz
  • &Rupert Bourne

Contributions

Please see Appendix 2 for more detailed information about individual author contributions to the research, divided into the following categories: managing the overall research enterprise; writing the first draft of the manuscript; primary responsibility for applying analytical methods to produce estimates; primary responsibility for seeking, cataloguing, extracting, or cleaning data; designing or coding figures and tables; providing data or critical feedback on data sources; developing methods or computational machinery; providing critical feedback on methods or results; drafting the manuscript or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and managing the estimation or publications process.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Julie-Anne Little.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

GBD 2019 Blindness and Vision Impairment Collaborators: N J Adderley reports grants or contracts paid to their institution from the National Institute for Health and Care Research, UKRI Medical Research Council, Clinical Research Network West Midlands, and Action Against AMD. S Afzal reports support for the present manuscript from King Edward Medical University, Department of Community Medicine which provided study materials, research article, supporting staff and office for working on the manuscript; payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from King Edward Medical University; participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board with the National Bioethics Committee Pakistan, King Edward Medical University Institutional Ethical Review Board and Ethical Review Committee in Board of Faculty, and Ethical Review Board Fatima Jinnah Medical University and Sir Ganga Ram Hospital; leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid, Pakistan Association of Medical Editors, Fellow of Faculty of Public Health Royal Colleges UK (FFPH), Society of Prevention, Advocacy And Research, King Edward Medical University. (SPARK), Member Pakistan Society of Infectious Diseases, Member Pakistan Society of Internal Medicine, Member Pakistan Society of Community Medicine and Public Health; other financial or non-financial interests in the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan as a member Research and Publications Committee, and Pakistan Medical and Dental Council as a member Journal Research Evaluation Committee; all outside the submitted work. O C Baltatu reports support for the present manuscript from National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq, 304224/2022-7), and Anima Institute - AI research professor fellowship; leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid, with the Health and Biotechnology Board at São José dos Campos Technology Park, and Afya – UNINOVAFAPI as Academic Ambassador; all outside the submitted work. T W Bärnighausen reports grants from the European Union (Horizon 2020 and EIT Health), German Research Foundation (DFG), US National Institutes of Health, German Ministry of Education and Research, Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Else-Kröner-Fresenius - Foundation, Wellcome Trust, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, KfW, UNAIDS, and WHO; consulting fees from KfW on the OSCAR initiative in Vietnam; participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board with the NIH-funded study “Healthy Options”, Chair, Data Safety and Monitoring Board (DSMB), German National Committee on the “Future of Public Health Research and Education”, Chair of the scientific advisory board to the EDCTP Evaluation, Member of the UNAIDS Evaluation Expert Advisory Committee, National Institutes of Health Study Section Member on Population and Public Health Approaches to HIV/AIDS, US National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Committee for the “Evaluation of Human Resources for Health in the Republic of Rwanda under the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief”, and University of Pennsylvania Population Aging Research Center External Advisory Board Member; leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid, with the Global Health Hub Germany; all outside the submitted work. S Bhaskar reports grants or contracts from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), JSPS International Fellowship, Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), the Australian Academy of Science, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI); leadership or fiduciary roles in board, society, committee or advocacy groups, paid or unpaid with Rotary District 9675 as the District Chair of Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion; the Global Health & Migration Hub Community and the Global Health Hub Germany (Berlin, Germany) as the Chair and Manager; PLOS One, BMC Neurology, Frontiers In Neurology, Frontiers in Stroke, Frontiers in Public Health and BMC Medical Research Methodology as an Editorial Board Member, outside the submitted work. R Bourne reports support for the present manuscript to their institution from the World Health Organization (WHO), Brien Holden Vision Institute, Foundation Thea, Fred Hollows Foundation, Lions Clubs International Foundation; and grants or contracts to their institution from Sightsavers International and the University of Heidelberg. M Cenderadewi reports grants or contracts from James Cook University (International Research Training Program Scholarship for doctoral study), and support for attending meetings and travel from James Cook University; all outside the submitted work. N Congwon reports grants or contracts paid to their institute from the Wellcome Trust Investigator Award. X Dai and J D Steinmetz report support for the present manuscript from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation as payments to IHME for the GBD Study. A Dastridiou reports support for attending meetings and/or travel from THEA and ABBVIE; outside the submitted work. T Fricke reports a grant from the International Myopia Institute, and contracts from the Brien Holden Vision Institute and the Victorian Lions Foundation, all paid to the Australian College of Optometry; payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from the University of Melbourne and UNSW Sydney; support from attending meetings and travel from the International Myopia Conference as a presenter, and UNSW Sydney as a PhD Candidate; all outside the submitted work. J M Furtado reports consulting fees from SightFirst and Pan American Health Organization; outside the submitted work. I M Ilic reports support for the present manuscript from Ministry of Education, Science and Technological development, Republic of Serbia (project No 175042, 2011-2023). S M S Islam reports grants from NHMRC and the Heart Foundation, outside the submitted work. F Ghassemi reports support for the present manuscript from medical writing. V K Gupta report grants or contracts from National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), Australia, as payments to their institutions; all outside the submitted work. J H Kempen reports support for the present manuscript from Sight for Souls and Mass Eye and Ear Global Surgery Program. K Krishan reports non-financial support from UGC Centre of Advanced Study, CAS II, Department of Anthropology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India, outside the submitted work. V C Lansingh reports consulting fees from HelpMeSee; and support for attending meetings and travel from HelpMeSee; all outside the submitted work. J L Leasher reports leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, unpaid as a member of the National Eye Institute National Eye Health Education Program planning committee; outside the submitted work. M Lee reports support for the present manuscript from the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF-2021R1I1A4A01057428) and Bio-convergence Technology Education Program through the Korea Institute for Advancement Technology (KIAT) funded by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (No. P0017805). K S Naidoo reports other financial support from OneSight EssilorLuxottica Foundation as an employee; outside the submitted work. M Saylan reports support for attending meetings and/or travel from Janssen Pharmaceuticals; outside the submitted work. J A Singh reports consulting fees from AstraZeneca, Crealta/Horizon, Medisys, Fidia, PK Med, Two labs Inc., Adept Field Solutions, Clinical Care options, Clearview healthcare partners, Putnam associates, Focus forward, Navigant consulting, Spherix, MedIQ, Jupiter Life Science, UBM LLC, Trio Health, Medscape, WebMD, Practice Point communications, and the National Institutes of Health and the American College of Rheumatology; payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from the speaker’s bureau of Simply Speaking; support for attending meetings from OMERACT as a member of the steering committee; participation on an Advisory Committee with the FDA Arthritis Advisory Committee; leadership or fiduciary roles in board, society, committee or advocacy groups, paid or unpaid as a past steering committee member of the OMERACT, an international organization that develops measures for clinical trials and receives arms length funding from 12 pharmaceutical companies, Co-Chair of the Veterans Affairs Rheumatology Field Advisory Committee, and the editor and Director of the UAB Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group Satellite Center on Network Meta-analysis; stock or stock options in Atai Life Sciences, Kintara Therapeutics, Intelligent Biosolutions, Acumen Pharmaceutical, TPT Global Tech, Vaxart Pharmaceuticals, Atyu Biopharma, Adaptimmune Therapeutics, GeoVax Labs, Pieris Pharmaceuticals, Enzolytics Inc., Seres Therapeutics, Tonix Pharmaceuticals Holding Corp., and Charlotte’s Web Holdings, Inc, as well as previously owned stock options in Amarin, Viking and Moderna Pharmaceuticals; outside the submitted work. Y S Samodra reports grants or contracts from Taipei Medical University; and other financial or non-financial interests as the co-founder of Benang Merah Research Center, outside the submitted work. N Tahhan reports support for attending meetings and travel from the Brien Holden Foundation to the ISER Conference; outside the submitted work. Y Tan reports support for the present manuscript from the Department of Ophthalmology and the Hospital Central South University and Postdoctoral Station of Clinical Medicine, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. J H V Ticoalu reports other financial or non-financial support as a co-founder of Benang Merah Research Center; outside the submitted work.

Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study: A Bron reports payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from Théa. N Congdon reports grants or contracts from any entity from Welcome Trust and MRC; consulting fees from Belkin Vision; and support for attending meetings and/or travel from Singapore National Eye Center. M A Del Monte reports support for attending meetings and/or travel from the University of Michigan, and leadership or fiduciary roles in board, society, committee or advocacy groups, paid or unpaid as past president of Costenbader Society. T Fricke reports grants or contracts from any entity from Brien Holden Vision Institute, Victorian Lions Foundation, International Myopia Institute, and Australian government; and support for attending meetings and/or travel from International Myopia Institute. D Friedman reports leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid, from Orbis International as member of board of governors. J M Furtado reports consulting fees from Pan American Health Organization and from Lions Club International Foundation. G Gazzard reports consulting fees from Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Allergan, Inc; BELKIN Vision LTD; Carl Zeiss Meditec; Elios; Genentech/Roche; Reichert; Théa and ViaLase; payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from Alcon Laboratories, Inc; BELKIN Vision Ltd; Carl Zeiss Meditec; Elios and Ellex; participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board with Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Allergan, Inc; BELKIN Vision Ltd; Carl Zeiss Meditec; Elios and Visufarma; and leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid with Glaucoma UK Medical Advisory Board and UK&Eire Glaucoma Society as president. M E Hartnett reports support for the present manuscript (e.g., funding, provision of study materials, medical writing, article processing charges, etc.) from Michael F. Marmor, M.D. Professor of Retinal Science and Disease as endowment to support salary; grants or contracts from any entity (from National Eye Institute R01 EY017011 and National Eye Institute R01 EY015130) as partial salary support; patents planned, issued or pending (WO2015123561A2 and WO2021062169A1); and leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid with Jack McGovern Coats’ Disease Foundation and as director of Women’s Eye Health and Macular Society Grant Review Chair. J H Kempen reports support for the present manuscript (e.g., funding, provision of study materials, medical writing, article processing charges, etc.) from Mass Eye and Ear Global Surgery Program (as support of salary). J E Kim reports consulting fees from Genentech/Roche, DORC, Notal Vision and Outlook Therapeutics (all as payment to J E Kim); participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board with Allergan, Amgen, Apellis, Bausch&Lomb, Clearside, Coherus, Novartis and Regeneron (all as participation on advisory board); leadership or fiduciary role in other borad, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid, with AAO, APRIS, ASRS, Macular Society and NAEVR/AEVR (all unpaid); and receipt of equipment, materials, drugs, medical writing, gifts or other services from Clearside and Genentech/Roche (both for medical writing). V C Lansingh reports consulting fees from HelpMeSee (as an employee); and support for attending meetings and/or travel from HelpMeSee (pay airfare and hotel). J Leasher reports leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid with National Eye Institute (as a member) and National Eye Health Education Program planning committee (unpaid). K S Naidoo reports other financial or non-financial interests from OneSight Essilor Luxottica Foundation as an employee of the non-profit foundation. M Nowak reports participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board with Vision Express Co. Poland as the chairman of medical advisory board of Vision Express Co. Poland. P Ramulu reports grants or contracts from National Institute of Health and Perfuse Therapeutics; and consulting fees from Alcon and W. L. Gore. F Topouzis reports grants or contracts from Théa, Omikron, Pfizer, Alcon, Abbvie and Bayer (all paid to Institution); consulting fees from Omikron, Théa and Bausch & Lomb (all paid to Topouzis); payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events from Omikron (paid to Topouzis), Abbvie and Roche (both paid to Institute); and leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group, paid or unpaid with European Glaucoma Society (as president), Greek Glaucoma Society (as president) and Board of Governors, World Glaucoma Association (all unpaid).

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Global estimates on the number of people blind or visually impaired by Uncorrected Refractive Error: a meta-analysis from 2000 to 2020 (1)

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Vision Loss Expert Group of the Global Burden of Disease Study., the GBD 2019 Blindness and Vision Impairment Collaborators. Global estimates on the number of people blind or visually impaired by Uncorrected Refractive Error: a meta-analysis from 2000 to 2020. Eye (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41433-024-03106-0

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Global estimates on the number of people blind or visually impaired by Uncorrected Refractive Error: a meta-analysis from 2000 to 2020 (2024)

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